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Eid Ul Adha – عيد الأضحى November 29, 2009

Posted by Farzana Naina in Eid Mubarak, Festivals, Islam.
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“Festival of Sacrifice”

“Greater Eid” is a holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to c

ommemorate the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son as an act of obedience to God.

Eid al-Adha is the latter of two Eid festivals celebrated by Muslims, whose basis comes from the Quran. Like Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha begins with a short prayer followed by a sermon (khuṭba).

Eid al-Adha annually falls on the 10th day of the month of Zul Hijja (ذو الحجة) of the lunar Islamic calendar. The festivities last for three

days or more depending on the country. Eid al-Adha occurs the day after the pilgrims conducting Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia by Muslims worldwide, descend from Mount Arafat. It happens to be approximately 70 days after the end of the month of Ramadan.

The Arabic term “Festival of Sacrifice”, ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā was borrowed as a unit into Indic languages such as Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati and Bengali and Austronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian.

Another Arabic word for “sacrifice”, (Arabic: قربان‎ Qurbān), was lent into Dari Persian – Afghanistan and Iranian dialect of Persian as Eyde

Ghorbân (Persian: عید قربان), into Tajik Persian as Иди Қурбон (Idi Qurbon), into Kazakh as Құрбан айт (Qurban ayt), into Uyghur as Qurban Heyit, and also into various Indic languages. Other languages combined the Arabic word qurbān with local terms for “festival”, as in Kurdish (Cejna Qurbanê [2]), Pashto (Kurbaneyy Akhtar), Chinese (Chinese: 古尔邦节 Gúěrbāng Jié), Malay and Indonesian (Hari Raya Korban, Qurbani), and Turkish (Turkish: Kurban Bayramı). The Turkish term was then later borrowed into languages such as Azeri (Qurban Bayramı), Tatar (Qorban Bäyräme), Croatian and Bosnian (Kurban-bajram), Serbian (Курбан бајрам), Russian (Курбан байрам).

Another Arabic name, ‘Īd ul-Kabīr (Arabic: عيد الكبير‎ `Īd al-Kabīr), meaning “Greater Eid/Festival”, is used in Yemen, Syria, and North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt). The term was borrowed directly into French as Aïd el-Kebir. Translations of “Big Eid” or “Greater Eid” are used in Pashto لوی اختر Loy Akhtar, Kashmiri Baed Eid, Hindi and Urdu Baṛā Īd, Malayalam Bali Perunnal, and Tamil Peru Nāl.

Another name refers to the fact that the holiday occurs after the culmination of the Hajj (حج), or pilgrimage to Mecca (Makka). Such names are used in Malay and Indonesian (Hari Raya Haji “Hajj celebration day”, Lebaran Haji), and in Tamil Hajji Peru Nāl.

In Urdu-speaking areas, the festival is also called بقرعید Baqra Īd or Baqrī Īd, stemming either from the Arabic baqarah “heifer” or the Urdu word baqrī for “goat”, as cows and goats are among the traditionally-sacrificed animals. That term was also borrowed into other languages, such as Tamil Bakr Eid Peru Nāl.

Other local names include 宰牲节 Zǎishēng Jié (“Slaughter-livestock Festival”) in Chinese, Tfaska Tamoqqart in the Berber language of Jerba, Tabaski or Tobaski in West African languages ,Babbar Sallah in Nigerian languages, and ciida gawraca in Somali.

Eid-al-Adha has other popular names across the Muslim world. The name is often simply translated into the local language, such as English Festival of Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului and Hungarian Áldozati ünnep.

History Four thousand years ago, the valley of Mecca was a dry and uninhabited place. According to Islamic history, the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) was instructed to bring Hajar and their child Ismael to Arabia from the land of Canaan by God’s command.

As Ibrahim made ready to return to the land of Canaan, Hajar asked him, “Who ordered you to leave us here”? When Ibrahim replied: “Allah”(God), Hajar said, “then Allah will not forget us; you can go”. Although Ibrahim had left a large quantity of food and water with Hajar and Ismael, the supplies quickly ran out and within a few days the two were suffering from hunger and dehydration.

According to the story, a desperate Hajar ran up and down between two hills called Safa and Marwa seven times, trying to find water. Finally, she collapsed beside her baby Ismael and prayed to Allah for deliverance. Ismael struck his foot on the ground, causing a spring of water to gush forth from the earth. Other accounts have the angel Jibral (Gabriel) striking the earth and causing the spring to flow. With this secure water supply, they were not only able to provide for their own needs, but were also able to trade water with passing nomads for food and supplies. When the Prophet Ibrahim returned from Canaan to check on his family, he was amazed to see them running a profitable well.

The Prophet Ibrahim was told by God to build a shrine dedicated to him adjacent to Hajar’s well (the Zamzam Well). Ibrahim and Ismael constructed a small stone structure–-the Kaaba–which was to be the gathering place for all who wished to strengthen their faith in Allah. As the years passed, Ismael was blessed with Prophethood and gave the nomads of the desert his message of surrender to Allah. After many centuries, Mecca became a thriving city and a major center for trade, thanks to its reliable water source, the well of Zamzam.

One of the main trials of Prophet Ibrahim’s life was to face the command of Allah to devote his dearest possession, his only son. Upon hearing this command, he prepared to submit to Allah’s’s will. During this preparation, when Satan tempted Prophet Ibrahim and his family, Hajar and Ismael drove Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. To remember this rejection of Satan, stones are thrown during Hajj.

At the time of sacrifice, Ibrahim discovered a sheep died instead of Ismail, whom he hacked through neck. When Ibrahim was fully prepared to complete the sacrifice, Allah revealed to him that his “sacrifice” had already been fulfilled. Ibrahim had shown that his love for his Lord superseded all others: that he would lay down his own life or the lives of those dear to him in order to submit to God. Muslims commemorate this superior act of sacrifice during Eid al-Adha.

The Hijrah

No longer safe in Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad, in the year 628 traveled to Medina (lit. the city) with 1400 of his followers. This is considered as the first ‘pilgrimage’ in Islam, seeking to re-establish the religious traditions of the Prophet Ibrahim, as he believed they were originally practiced

The Takbir and other Rituals

The Takbir is recited from the dawn of the tenth of Dhu al-Hijjah to the thirteenth of it. The Takbir consists of:

Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر

lā ilāha illā Allāh لا إله إلا الله

Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر

wa li-illāhil-ḥamd ولله الحمد

Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,

There is no deity but Allah

Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah goes all praise

Variation

Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar الله أكبر الله أكبر

lā ilāha illā Allāh لا إله إلا الله

wa Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar والله أكبر الله أكبر

wa li-illāhil-ḥamd ولله الحمد

Alḥamdulillāh `alā mā hadānā, wa lahul-shukru `ala mā awlānā الحمدلله على ما هدانا و له الشكر على ما اولانا

Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,

There is no deity but Allah

and Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest

and to Allah goes all praise, (We) sing the praises of Allah because He has shown us the Right Path. (We) gratefully thank Him because He takes care of us and looks after our interests

Traditions and practices

Men, women, and children are expected to dress in their finest clothing to perform Eid prayer (ṣalātu l-`Īdi) in a large congregation in an open area or mosque. Muslims who can afford to do so sacrifice their best domestic animals (usually sheep, but also camels, cows and goats) as a symbol of Ibrahim’s sacrifice. The sacrificed animals, called uḍiyyah (Arabic: أضحية‎, also known as “al-qurbāni”), have to meet certain age and quality standards or else the animal is considered an unacceptable sacrifice. Generally, sacrificial animals must be at least one year of age.

The regular charitable practices of the Muslim community are demonstrated during Eid al-Adha by the concerted effort to see that no impoverished person is left without sacrificial food during these days.

During Eid al-Adha, distributing meat amongst the people, chanting Takbir out loud before the Eid prayer on the first day, and after prayers throughout the four days of Eid are considered essential parts of the festival. In some countries, families that do not own livestock can make a contribution to a charity that will provide meat to those who are in need

While Eid al-Adha is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. The lunar calendar is approximately eleven days shorter than the solar calendar. Each year, Eid al-Adha (like other Islamic holidays) falls on one of two different Gregorian dates in different parts of the world, due to the fact that the boundary of crescent visibility is different from the International date line.

The following list shows the official dates of Eid al-Adha for Saudi Arabia as announced by the Supreme Judicial Council. Future dates are calculated according to the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia. The three days after the listed date are also part of the festival. The time before the listed date the pilgrims visit the Mount Arafat and descend from it after sunrise of the listed day. Future dates of Eid al-Adha might face correction 10 days before the festivity, in case of deviant lunar sighting in Saudi Arabia for the start of the month Zul Hijja.

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Br’rooh Larkiyon Ka – بے روح لڑکیوں کا ٹھکانہ November 18, 2009

Posted by Farzana Naina in British Pakistani Poetess, Famous Urdu Poets, Farzana, Farzana Naina, Ghazal, Ghazal, Kavita, Literature, Mushaira, Naina, Nazm, Pakistani Poetess, Poetess, Poetry, Shaira, Shairy, Sher, Urdu, Urdu Literature, Urdu Poetry, Urdu Shairy.
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Berooh larkiyon ka thikana bana hua-wordpress

Be’rooh Larkiyon Ka Thikana Bana Hua

Kamrah Hai Mera Aeena’khana Bana Hua

 

Meine Tau Koi Baat Kisi Se Nahi Kahi

Socha Hai Jo Wohi Hai Fasana Bana Hua

 

Nadiya Mein Kis Ne Rakh Diye Jalte Huey Charaagh

Mausam Hai Chasm E Tar Ka Suhana Bana Hua

 

Aurak Ka Zehn Mard Ki Is Kainaat Mein

Abtak Hai Uljhanon Ka Nishana Bana Hua

 

Mumkin Hai Maar De Mujhe Uski Koi Khaber

Dushman Hai Jiska Mera Gharana Bana Hua

 

Baarish Ki Aag Hai Mere Ander Lagi Hui

Baadal Hai Aaso’on Ka Nishana Bana Hua

 

Naina Kai Baras Se Hawa Ki Hon Humnafas

Hai Ye Badan Usi Ka Khazana Bana Hua

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Sketch by Rafael November 3, 2009

Posted by Farzana Naina in Art.
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رافائیل کے خاکے کی نیلامی

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Rafael sketch-Italian Painter

’ہیڈ آف اے میوز‘ نامی یہ خاکہ 1508 اور 1511 کے درمیان کے عرصے میں بنایا گیا تھا۔ پاپائے روم جولیئس دوم نے ویٹیکن کے لیے چار ’فریسکو‘ تصاویر کا سلسلہ بنوایا تھا اور یہ خاکہ اس میں سے ایک فریسکو کی تیاری کے لیے بنایا گیا تھا۔

اس خاکے کی نیلامی آٹھ دسمبر کو آرٹ کے مشہور نیلام گھر ’کرِسٹیز‘ میں ہوگی۔

’کرسِٹیز‘ کے ایک ماہر بینجامن پیرونے کا کہنا ہے کہ یہ اس لیے اہم تصویر ہے کہ یہ نہ صرف بذات خود بہترین فن کا مظاہرہ ہے بلکہ اس کا رافایئل کے ایک یادگار منصوبے سے بھی تعلق ہے۔

رافائیل یعنی رافائیلو سانزیو کو پاپائے روم نے اس منصوبے کے لیے پندرہ سو آٹھ میں فلورنس سے روم بلالیا تھا۔ رافائیل فریسکو تیار کرنے کے عمل میں تفصیلی تیاریاں کیا کرتے تھے۔ اس نوعیت کے خاکے بنا کر ان کی لائنوں کو باریک سراخوں اور نیلے چاک کے ذریعے دیوار پر ٹریس کیا جاتا تھا۔

بشکریہ۔بی بی سی

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519) November 2, 2009

Posted by Farzana Naina in Art.
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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci

BookDa Vinci was one of the great creative minds of the Italian Renaissance, hugely influential as an artist and sculptor but also immensely talented as an engineer, scientist and inventor.

Leonardo da Vinci was born on 15 April 1452 near the Tuscan town of Vinci, the illegitimate son of a local lawyer. He was apprenticed to the sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence and in 1478 became an independent master. In about 1483, he moved to Milan to work for the ruling Sforza family as an engineer, sculptor, painter and architect. From 1495 to 1497 he produced a mural of ‘The Last Supper’ in the refectory of the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.

Da Vinci was in Milan until the city was invaded by the French in 1499 and the Sforza family forced to flee. He may have visited Venice before returning to Florence. During his time in Florence, he painted several portraits, but the only one that survives is the famous ‘Mona Lisa’ (1503-1506).

In 1506, da Vinci returned to Milan, remaining there until 1513. This was followed by three years based in Rome. In 1517, at the invitation of the French king Francis I, Leonardo moved to the Château of Cloux, near Amboise in France, where he died on 2 May 1519.

The fame of Da Vinci’s surviving paintings has meant that he has been regarded primarily as an artist, but the thousands of surviving pages of his notebooks reveal the most eclectic and brilliant of minds. He wrote and drew on subjects including geology, anatomy (which he studied in order to paint the human form more accurately), flight, gravity and optics, often flitting from subject to subject on a single page, and writing in left-handed mirror script. He ‘invented’ the bicycle, airplane, helicopter, and parachute some 500 years ahead of their time.

If all this work had been published in an intelligible form, da Vinci’s place as a pioneering scientist would have been beyond dispute. Yet his true genius was not as a scientist or an artist, but as a combination of the two: an ‘artist-engineer’. His painting was scientific, based on a deep understanding of the workings of the human body and the physics of light and shade. His science was expressed through art, and his drawings and diagrams show what he meant, and how he understood the world to work.

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