jump to navigation

Farid ud-Din Attar June 13, 2009

Posted by Farzana Naina in Poetry.
Tags: ,

Farid ud-Din Attar was born in Nishapur, in north-east Iran. There is disagreement over the exact dates of his birth and death but several sources confirm that he lived about 100 years. He is traditionally said to have been killed by Mongol invaders. His tomb can be seen today in Nishapur.

As a younger man, Attar went on pilgrimage to Mecca and traveled extensively throughout the region, seeking wisdom in Egypt, Damascus, India, and other areas, before finally returning to his home city of Nishapur.

The name Attar means herbalist or druggist, which was his profession. It is said that he saw as many as 500 patients a day in his shop, prescribing herbal remedies which he prepared himself, and he wrote his poetry while attending to his patients.

About thirty works by Attar survive, but his masterpiece is the Mantic at-Tayr (The Conference of the Birds). In this collection, he describes a group of birds (individual human souls) under the leadership of a hoopoe (spiritual master) who determine to search for the legendary Simurgh bird (God). The birds must confront their own individual limitations and fears while journeying through seven valleys before they ultimately find the Simurgh and complete their quest. The 30 birds who ultimately complete the quest discover that they themselves are the Simurgh they sought, playing on a pun in Persian (si and murgh can translate as 30 birds) while giving us an esoteric teaching on the presence of the Divine within us.

Attar’s poetry inspired Rumi and many other Sufi poets. It is said that Rumi actually met Attar when Attar was an old man and Rumi was a boy, though some scholars dispute this possibility.

Farid ud-Din Attar was apparently tried at one point for heresy and exiled from Nishapur, but he eventually returned to his home city and that is where he died.

A traditional story is told about Attar’s death. He was taken prisoner by a Mongol during the invasion of Nishapur. Someone soon came and tried to ransom Attar with a thousand pieces of silver. Attar advised the Mongol not to sell him for that price. The Mongol, thinking to gain an even greater sum of money, refused the silver. Later, another person came, this time offering only a sack of straw to free Attar. Attar then told the Mongol to sell him for that was all he was worth. Outraged at being made a fool, the Mongol cut off Attar’s head.

Whether or not this is literally true isn’t the point. This story is used to teach the mystical insight that the personal self isn’t of much real worth. What is valuable is the Beloved’s presence within us — and that presence isn’t threatened by the death of the body.

Poems by Farid ud-Din Attar  (1120? – 1220?)

The Nightingale

The nightingale raises his head, drugged with passion,

Pouring the oil of earthly love in such a fashion

That the other birds shaded with his song, grow mute.

The leaping mysteries of his melodies are acute.

‘I know the secrets of Love, I am their piper,’

He sings, ‘I seek a David with broken heart to decipher

Their plaintive barbs, I inspire the yearning flute,

The daemon of the plucked conversation of the lute.

The roses are dissolved into fragrance by my song,

Hearts are torn with its sobbing tone, broken along

The fault lines of longing filled with desire’s wrong.

My music is like the sky’s black ocean, I steal

The listener’s reason, the world becomes the seal

Of dreams for chosen lovers, where only the rose

Is certain. I cannot go further, I am lame, and expose

My anchored soul to the divine Way.

My love for the rose is sufficient, I shall stay

In the vicinity of its petalled image, I need

No more, it blooms for me the rose, my seed.

The hoopoe replies: ‘You love the rose without thought.

Nightingale, your foolish song is caught

By the rose’s thorns, it is a passing thing.

Velvet petal, perfume’s repose bring

You pleasure, yes, but sorrow too

For the rose’s beauty is shallow: few

Escape winter’s frost. To seek the Way

Release yourself from this love that lasts a day.

The bud nurtures its own demise as day nurtures night.

Groom yourself, pluck the deadly rose from your sight.

How long then will you seek for beauty here?

How long then will you seek for beauty here?

Seek the unseen, and beauty will appear.

When the last veil is lifted neither men

Nor all their glory will be seen again,

The universe will fade — this mighty show

In all its majesty and pomp will go,

And those who loved appearances will prove

Each other’s enemies and forfeit love,

While those who loved the absent, unseen Friend

Will enter that pure love which knows no end.

The Lover

‘A lover’, said the hoopoe, now their guide,

‘Is one in whom all thoughts of self have died;

Those who renounce the self deserve that name;

Righteous or sinful, they are all the same!

Your heart is thwarted by the self’s control;

Destroy its hold on you and reach your goal.

Give up this hindrance, give up mortal sight,

For only then can you approach the light.

If you are told: “Renounce our Faith,” obey!

The self and Faith must both be tossed away;

Blasphemers call such action blasphemy —

Tell them that love exceeds mere piety.

Love has no time for blasphemy or faith,

Nor lovers for the self, that feeble wraith.

Sindhi kalam sufi music

عظیم صوفی شاعر سچل سرمست September 6, 2008

Posted by Farzana Naina in Poetry, Urdu.
Tags: ,
add a comment


خیرپور+گمبٹ – سندھ کے عظیم صوفی شاعر حضرت سچل سرمست کا 187 واں عرس درازہ شریف 14 رمضان المبارک کو شروع ہوگا۔ انتظامات کیلئے ای ڈی او ریونیو احمد علی قریشی کی صدارت میں سچل یادگار کمیٹی کی سب کمیٹی کا اجلاس ہوا جس میں صوفی راگ گانے والوں، ادیبوں، شاعروں اور نامور فنکاروں کی فہرست کو حتمی شکل دی گئی۔ سندھ کے وزیراعلیٰ سید قائم علی شاہ درگاہ پر پھولوں کی چادر چڑھا کر عرس کا افتتاح کریں گے۔ ثقافت اور سیاحت کے محکمے کی طرف سے نیشنل ادبی کانفرنس ہوگی۔ اجلاس میں عابدہ پروین، حمیرا چنہ، احمد مغل، صوفی شاعروں سہراب فقیر، موٹن شاہ، فقیر سوہنو، شمن فقیر، زاہدہ پروین، شاہدہ پروین اور دیگر فنکاروں کو دعوت دینے کا فیصلہ کیا گیا۔

***پیدائش : 1739

وفات : 1242 ھجری

سندھی زبان کے مشہور شاعر جو عرف عام میں ہفت زبان شاعر کہلاتے ہیں کیوں کہ آپ کا کلام سات زبانوں میں ملتا ہے۔ سچل سرمست کی پیدائش 1739ء میں سابق ریاست خیرپور کے چھوٹے گاؤں درازا میں ایک مذہبی خاندان میں ہوئی۔ان کا اصل نام تو عبدالوہاب تھا مگر ان کی صاف گوئی کو دیکھ کر لوگ انہیں سچل یعنی سچ بولنے والا کہنے لگے۔ بعد میں ان کی شاعری کے شعلے دیکھ کر انہیں سرمست بھی کہا گیا۔ سچل سرمست کی پیدائش سندھ کے روایتی مذہبی گھرانے میں ہوئی مگر انہوں نے اپنی شاعری میں اپنی خاندانی اور اس وقت کی مذہبی روایات کو توڑ کر اپنی محفلوں میں ہندو مسلم کا فرق مٹا دیا۔ان کے عقیدت مندوں میں کئی ہندو بھی شامل ہیں۔ سچل سرمست تصوف میں وحدت الوجود کے قائل تھے۔

شاہ عبدالطیف بھٹائی اور سچل سرمست کی زندگیوں میں ستر برس کا فاصلہ ہے۔ سچل ستر برس بعد جب صوفیانہ شاعری میں آیا تو ان کی وجدانیت بھی منفرد تھی۔ان کے ساتھ صوفی ازم کی موسیقی نے بھی سرمستی کا سفر کیا اور شاہ بھٹائی کے نسبتاً دھیمے لہجے والے فقیروں سے سچل کے فقیروں کا انداز بیان منفرد اور بیباک تھا۔

سچل سرمست نے سندھ کے کلہوڑا اور تالپور حکمرانوں کے ایسے دور اقتدار میں زندگی بسر کی جب مذہبی انتہاپسندی اپنے عروج پر تھی۔انہوں نے اپنے آس پاس مذہبی نفرتوں کو دیکھ کر سندھی میں کہا:

مذہبن ملک میں ماٹھو منجھایا، شیخی پیری بیحد بھلایا۔

جس کا سادہ ترجمہ اس طرح ہے کہ مذہبوں نے ملک میں لوگوں کو مایوس کیا اور شیخی، پیری نے انہیں بھول بھلیوں میں ڈال دیا ہے۔

سچل سرمست نوّے برس کی عمر میں 14 رمضان 1242ء ھجری میں وفات کر گئے۔وہ شادی شدہ تھے مگر ان کی کوئی اولاد نہیں ہے۔انہوں نے بنیادی عربی فارسی کی تعلیم اپنے خاندان کے بزرگ اپنے چچا مرشد اور سسر خواجہ عبدالحق سے حاصل کی۔سچل سرمست کا کلام سندھی، اردو، عربی، فارسی اور سرائیکی میں موجود ہے۔ انہیں اور ان کا کلام سنانے والے فقیروں کو سندھ میں ایک منفرد مقام اس لیے بھی حاصل ہے کہ کسی بھی محفل میں جب بھی مذہبی انتہا پسندی کو للکارا جاتا ہے تو آج بھی سہارا سچل کا لیا جاتا ہے۔

یہ معلومات وکیپیڈیا سے لی گئی ہے


Sachal Sarmast (1739-1829) (Sindhi: سچلُ سرمستُ ) (Urdu: سچل سرمست ) was a renowned Sindhi Sufi poet during the Kalhora era. Abdul Wahab was his real name and “Sachal” was the name he used in his own poetry. Sachu means truth in Sindhi and Sachalu means truthful. Sarmast means mystic in Sindhi and Urdu. Suchal Sarmast literally means ‘truthful mystic’. Sachal Sarmast was an ardent follower of Wahdat-ul-Wujood, an Islamic Philosophy synonymous with Hamah Oost.

Poetry of Sachal Sarmast
The brave speak the truth

Let others like it or not;

For the talk of false friendship we care not.

“Sarmast” (pronounced Sarimastu in Sindhi, meaning leader of the ‘intoxicated’ or ‘mad’) is the title often used by his followers. The title, given to him first by Agha Sufi, a compiler of his Risalo (collection of poems), refers to the fact that Sachal was intoxicated by love.

Sachal Sarmast was an ardent follower of Wahdat-ul-Wujood (unity of existence), an Islamic Philosophy synonymous with Hamah Oost (all from One), and Advaita Vedanta philosophy. The concept of Hamah Oost (all from One) is similar to that found in Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Sachal says (translation by Gul Agha):

There is no other Beloved,

There is only what I see everyday!

I was sitting by the roadside,

When the path became clear to me;

In the palace the Beloved I saw,

a glimpse the Beauty gave;

Through the window was the vision,

a glimpse the Beauty saw;

Take care of the ignorant;

Our bond was made for a reason.

I truly recognized the Lord,

My companion He sure became;

‘He is the Creator of all

and intrinsic to all’,

All doubts in this perished;

With happiness shall I carry

Sisters, if your trust I have.

All the journeys, all the manifestations

The Dear One’s own;

Friend ‘Sachal’ know this correctly,

Slumber has created illusions.

Like other sufis of Sindh, Sachal made no distinctions based on religion, but regarded love as the path to spirituality:

‘Tis not in religion I believe

‘Tis love I live in.

When love comes to you.

Say Amen!

‘Tis not with the infidel

that love resides

Nor with the faithful.

Rather, Sachal advocated self-realization as the path to liberation. Sachal says (translation by Jethmal Parsram Gulrajani):

O friend! this is the only way to learn

the secrets of the path:

Follow not the road of another, however

virtuous he may be.

Rend the veil over thee,

Searcher expose thy being.

Books on Sachal
Study of Mysticism in Darazi:
School of Sufi Thought:

Author: Dr.Sakhi Qabool Muhammad Faruqi: -Sajjada Nashin.: Publisher: Darazi Publications:

Priceless Pearls Picked from Wonderous Waters of Wisdom:
Author: Dr.Sakhi Qabool Muhammad Faruqi – Sajjada Nashin.:

Edited by:Tanveer Abbasi: Publisher: Sachal Chair:

SachalJo Kalam urf Aashiqi Ilham (Sindhi):
Publisher: Sachal Chair:

Muntakhab alam Sachal Sarmast (Urdu):
Publisher: Sachal Chair:

Sachal Sarmast (Sindh):
Author – Jethmal Parsram : Publisher-Sachal Chair: Sarmast(Sindhi) Arrangedby: Muhammad Ali Hadaad Publisher: Sachal Sarmast Yadgar Committee.

Sachal Sarmast Ja Talib (Sindhi):
Author – Dr.Nawaz Ali Shauq: Publisher-Sachal Chair