Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani March 5, 2008Posted by Farzana Naina in Religion.
Tags: Islam, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Sufi
Hazrat-e-Bishr Qarazi narrates that I was travelling with a group of traders along with fourteen camels carrying sugar. We stopped for the night in a dangerous jungle. In the early hours of the night my four loaded camels disappeared, which were not found even after a lot of search. The group also departed. The camel driver stayed back with me . In the morning I suddenly remembered that my Mentor, The King of Baghdad Huzoor Ghous-e-Pak had told me that whenever you get stuck in any problem then call me (my name), Allah willing that problem will be solved, hence I requested this way: YA SHAIKH ABDUL QADIR! MY CAMELS ARE LOST. All of sudden I saw a saintly man dressed in white clothes on a sand dune towards east, who was signaling me to come to him. As soon as I along with my camel driver reached over there the saintly Man disappeared from vision. We were strangely looking here and there when we suddenly spotted those four lost camels sitting under the sand dune. Then what happened was that we caught the camels and re-joined the group. When Sayyed-e-na Shaikh Ab-ul-Hasan Ali Khabbaz was told the incident of the lost camels He said that Hazrat-e-Shaikh Ab-ul- Qassim has said that I have heard Sayyed-e-na Shaikh Muhi-ud-Din Abdul Qadir Jilani saying:
“THE ONE WHO CRIES OUT FOR MY HELP DURING SOME PROBLEM, THE PROBLEM GETS SOLVED, THE ONE WHO CALLS OUT MY NAME IN ANY HARDSHIP, THAT HARDSHIP; GETS DISMISSED, THE ONE WHO USED ME AS A SOURCE TO ASK ALLAH FOR SOME NEED, IT WILL BE FUFILLED. THE PERSON WHO PRAYES TWO RAK’AT OF NAFL AND IN EACH RAK’AT AFTER SURAH FATIHA RECITIES SURAH IKHLAS ELEVEN TIMES, AFTER SAYING SALAAM i.e AFTER FINISHING THE PRAYER, SENDS DUROOD-O-SALAAM ON THE KING OF MADEENAH AND THEN WALKS A DISTANCE OF ELEVEN STEPS TOWARDS BAGHDAD SHAREEF AND CALLS OUT MY NAME AND PRESENTS HIS NEED, ALLAH WILLING, THAT NEED WILL BE FULFILLED’.
Why should I go from door to door when I have a mentor like You. I received every thing from you ‘O, Ghous-e-Azam Dastgir.
Dear Islamic Brother! It is possible that in someone’s mind a thought may arise that we should only ask Allah for any help and no one else, because when Allah is the One who helps then why should we ask anyone else for help? The answer to this is that this is the way he makes an unknown number of people go astray. When Allah has not refrained from asking for help from someone else then how can someone get the right of saying that don’t ask for help from anyone but Allah. Look in the Holy Quran, where Allah has in various verses allowed asking for help from someone else, but even though being the Omnipotent in every way,. He has asked for help from His beings. Therefore it is stated:
Translation: If you will help the religion of Allah, Allah will help you. (Part-26, Sura: Muhammad)
THE KING OF JINNS
Bushair bin Mahfooz states that once my daughter, Fatima, all of a sudden vanished from the roof of my house. I got worried and want to the blessed presence of Sayyed-e-na Ghouse-e-Pak and requested for help. He told me to go to Karkh, and during the night sit in a deserted place forming a fort (Hisar) around myself. Over there think about em and say:” Bismillah” During the darkness of night groups of Jinns will pass by you, their faces will be very strange, do not get scared by looking at them, at the time of sahari the KING OF JINNS will come to you and will ask you about your requirement. Tell him, “Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani has sent me from Baghdad (my requirement is that) you search my daughter.”
Hence, I went to the ruins of KARKH and followed the instructions of Huzoor Ghous-e-Azam. During the silence of night, horrifying Jinns kept on passing outside my hisar. The faces of the Jinns were so horrifying that I could not look at them. At the time of sahari, the KING OF JINNS came on a horse back, there were Jinns surrounding him. He asked my demand from outside the hisar. I told him that Huzoor Ghous-e-Azam has sent me to you. As soon as he beard this, he got down the horse and sat on the ground. The other Jinns too sat outside the hisar.
I narrated the incident of the disappearance of my daughter. He announced amongst all the Jinns, “Who has taken the girl?” Within moments the Jinns caught a Chinese Jinn and presented him as the culprit. The King of the Jinns asked him why did you pick the girl up from the city of the Highest Cadre in Spiritual Pivot (Qutub) of the time? He said, while shivering, Your Highness! After looking at her I fell in love with her. The King ordered the Chinese Jinn to be beheaded and returned my wonderful daughter to me. I thanked the King of the Jinns and said, as Allah will! You are an ardent lover of Sayyed-e-na Ghouse-e-Pak. He then replied, I SWEAR UPON ALLAH WHEN HUZOOR GHOUS-E-PAK LOOKS TOWARDS US, ALL THE JINNS START TREMBLING. WHEN ALL NOMINATES AS QUTUB OF TIME THEN ALL THE JINNS AND HUMANS ARE ORDERED TO FOLLOW HIM. (Bahjaa-tul- Asraar)
All the Jinns start trembling (with fear) on hearing your name. Your Have that majestic awe ‘O, Ghous-e-Azam Dastgir.
About Gous Pak: Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jelani was a noted Hanbali preacher, Sufi sheikh and the eponymous founder of the Qadiri Sufi order (selsela). He was born in Ramadan AH 470 (about AD 1077) in the Persian province of Gilan (Iran) south of the Caspian sea. His contribution and renown in the sciences of Sufism and Sharia was so immense that he became known as the spiritual pole of his time, al-Gauth al Azam (the “Supreme Helper” or the “Mightiest Succor”). His writings were similar to those of al-Ghazali in that they dealt with both the fundamentals of Islam and the mystical experience of Sufism.
Parents and Early Life
Abdul Qadir Jilani was a Sufi master and Syed (descendant of the Prophet Muhammad) from both his father and mother. His father Abu Saleh Jangidost, was an illustrious and God-fearing man. Once while engrossed in meditation by the bank of a river he saw an apple floating down the river. He picked it up and ate it. It struck to him that he ate the apple without paying for it so he set out in search of the owner, on the bank of the river and at last reached the owner of the apple orchard “Abdullah Somai” whom he requested to tell him the price of the apple, Abdullah Somai replied that it was an expensive thing. Syed Abu Saleh replied that he had not much by way of worldly material but he, could serve him for compensation. Abdullah Somai then asked him to work for a year in the orchard. In course of time the duration was extended several times. In the end Abdullah Somai admitted that he had served him in excess of the price and desired to reward him. Abu Saleh hesitated in accepting it but when Abdullah Somai persisted, he relented. He said he had a daughter, blind of eyes, handicapped of hands and feet and wanted to give her in marriage to him. In this way Abu Saleh was married to Abdullah Somai’s daughter, Syeda Fatimah. To his astonishment found her wondrously beautiful and wholesome. He complained to his father-in-law that he found her exactly the opposite to what he had described her. Abdullah Somai insisted on the truthfulness of his statement. She was blind because she had not seen any Ghair Mehram (a man who could marry her). She was mute because she had not uttered a word repugnant to the Shariah (Islamic law). She was deaf because she had not heard anything inconsistent with the Shariah. She was handicapped of hand and feet because she had never moved in the direction of evil.
Abdul Qadir Jilani’s father died soon after and the young orphan was reared up by his mother and his grandfather, Abdullah Somai.
At the age of 18 he went to Baghdad on AH 488 (1095 AD), where he pursued the study of Hanbalite law under several teachers. His mother sewed 40 gold coins in his quilt so that he might spend them when needed. The dacoits struck the caravan on the way, and looted all the travelers of their belongings. They asked him what he had. He replied that he had 40 gold coins. The dacoits took his reply for a joke and took him to their chief, who asked him the same question and he again replied that he had 40 gold coins. He demanded him to show, upon whom he tore away, the quilt and produced the gold coins. He was surprised and asked him why he had given the hidden gold coins when he could have kept them hidden. Young Abdul Qadir Jilani replied that he was travelling to Baghdad to receive education and his mother had instructed him to speak the truth. This left a deep effect on the chief of the dacoits and he gave up looting.
Abdul Qadir received lessons on Islamic Jurisprudence from Abu Said Ali al-Mukharrimi, Hadith from Abu-Bakra-bin- Muzaffar, and commentary (tafseer) from the renowned commentator, Abu Muhammad Jafar.
In Sufism, his spiritual instructor was Shaikh Abu’l-Khair Hammad. From him, he received his basic training, and with his help he set out on the spiritual journey. Abu Shuja’ was also a disciple of Shaikh Hammad, once he said: “Shaikh Abdul Qadir was in the company of Shaikh Hammad, so he came and sat in front of him, observing the best of good manners, until he stood up and took his leave. I heard Shaikh Hammad say, as soon as Shaikh Abdul Qadir had left: ‘This non-Arab has a foot that will be raised, when the proper time comes, and placed upon the necks of the saints of that time. He will surely be commanded to say: This foot of mine is upon the neck of every saint of Allah. He will surely say it, and the necks of all the saints of his age will surely be bent at his disposal.'” Hazrat Junayd Baghdadi (died AD 910), who died about 167 years before the birth of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, predicted about him on one occasion, when he was performing meditation & during that he said: “His foot will be over all Saints’ necks.” After finishing meditation, his disciples asked him about his words, he replied: “One Sufi would be born in the future, who would be greater than all saints.” Thus, Shaikh Hammad proved the words of Hazrat Junayd as right. The historians says that, later Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani also repeated the same words on many occasion by himself.
Spiritual Lineage, Shajra Mubarik
Prophet Muhammad (SW)
The Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib
Sheikh Hasan Basri
Sheikh Habib Ajami
Sheikh Dawood Taiee
Sheikh Ma’ruf Karkhi
Sheikh Sari Saqati
Sheikh Junayd al-Baghdadi
Sheikh Abu Bakr Shibli
Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Tam?m?
Sheikh Abu al-Fadl Abu al-Wahid al-Tam?m?
Sheikh Abu al-Farah Tartusi
Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Hakari
Sheikh Abu Sa’id al-Mubarak Mukharrami
Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
Popular Sufi Sheikh
After completion of education, Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani abandoned the city of Baghdad, and spent twenty-five years as a wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq as a recluse. He was over fifty years old by the time he returned to Baghdad, in AH 521 (AD 1127), and began to preach in public. His hearers were profoundly affected by the style and content of his lectures, and his reputation grew and spread through all sections of society. Not only Muslims, but also Jews and Christians, not only caliphs and viziers but also farmers, merchants and traders allegedly altered their lives in response to Abdul Qadir’s perorations.  He moved into the school belonging to his old teacher al-Mukharrimii, there he engaged himself in teaching. Soon he became popular with his pupils. In the morning he taught hadith and tafseer, and in the afternoon held discourse on mysticism and the virtues of the Qur’an. The number of students increased so much that the seminary could no more contain them. He, therefore, decided to extend the premises of the seminary. The students and the people willingly came forward with their wholehearted contributions. The campus buildings were ready in AH 528 and thereafter it came to be known as Madarsai-e-Qadriya.Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani was a Non-Arab (ajami), so he wasn’t fluent in Arabic and was having some difficulties because of it. Once The Prophet Muhammad came to him in a dream, before the time of the midday prayer (Zuhr), and he said to him: “O my dear son, why do you not speak out?” He replied: “O dear father, I am a Non-Arab man. How can I speak fluently in the classical Arabic language of Baghdad?” Holy Prophet said: “Just open your mouth!” He opened his mouth, and The Holy Prophet put his saliva seven times in his mouth. A few moments later, Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib also came & did the same to him six times. And from that time, Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani spoke classical Arabic language with fluency, his memory increased and he felt some great positive spiritual changes in him.
Once some one asked Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani about Mansur Al-Hallaj, he replied: “His claim extended too far, so the scissors of the Sacred Law (Shari’a) were empowered to clip it.”
He busied himself for forty years in the service of the Islam from AH 521 to 561. During this period hundreds embraced Islam because of him and organized several teams to go abroad for the purpose. He arrived in Indian sub-continent in AD 1128, and stayed at Multan (Pakistan). He died in AH 561 (AD 1166) at the age of 91 years, and was buried in Baghdad.
“My Foot is on the Neck of All Walis”
Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani uttered these words from the pulpit in Baghdad. All awliya, present and non-present, bowed their heads in submission. Unlike shatahat of some awliya, these words of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani were uttered in a state of sobreity, sahw. With the exception of Sahaba and the Imams of Ahle Bait, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani’s foot is on the neck of all awliya.
Maulana Jalalud-din Rumi-مولانا جلال الدین محمد بلخی رومی December 16, 2007Posted by Farzana Naina in Random.
Tags: Derveish, Maulana jalaluddin Rumi, Spiritual, Sufi
800th anniversary of the birth of Maulana Jalal-ud-Din Belhi-Rumi
(Maulana Jalal-ud-Din Balkhi Rumi), poet and philosopher (1207-1273)
“Eminent philosopher and mystical poet of Islam, Rumi advocated tolerance, reason and access to knowledge through love. His mystical relationship with Islam produced masterpieces that have marked Islamic culture and religious beliefs, well beyond the borders of Turkey. His work and thought remain universally relevant today.”
Above text is taken from UNESCO’s official website announcing that 2007 is declared as Rumi Year. 2007 is the 800th anniversary of Rumis birth and until today his thoughts and poems, written in the “Mesnevi” and “Divan-i Kebir” in Persian language, are for many humans, not only for muslim people very important.
Central topic of Maulanas teachings is the love, which he understood as main power of the universe. Because of GodÂ´s love the universe exists at all, humans must learn to love God, so they will learn to love everything what is GodÂ´s creation, thus as humans, nature and all things.
“For the lovers of God is God alone the source of sorrow and joy. It is the wages of their work and to be really rich.” (From the Mesnevi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi)
In the last year 1,5 million visitors and pilgrims flowed to the mausoleum of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi, which is today one of Turkeys most visited museums. 200000 visitors came from foreign countries, especiallay from Iran, where Maulana is very famous. From every part of the world humans visited the mystical poet, many of them speaking “Dua” (asking prayers) at his tomb.
After Maulanas death on December 17 in the year 1273 the mausoleum was established over which today rises up the “Kubbe-i-Hadra” (the Green dome), it became the symbol of Konya.
Rumi was buried near his father in the rose garden of the Seljuk palace. Later altogether 55 family members and companion or highranking Mevlevi-Derwishs like Selaheddin Zerkub and Husamedin Ã‡elebi found their last peace at the mausoleum, beside Maulana his son Sultan Veled. The “Tekke” was built, a building for meetings and studies, the Sema hall for mystical dance and small cells for meditation practice like “Zikr” (thinking of God).
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi was born in the year 1207 in Balkh in the Persian region Horasan (today Afghanistan). His father was the respected scholar Bahaeddin Veled, who left the city with his familiy because of the forthcoming Mongol invasion.
After travelling through different areas and a longer stay in Karaman, finally they came 1228 to Konya, which was the capital of the Rum Seljuk under the powerful Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat. After the death of the father Rumi became also a respected theological scholar. But the meeting and special friendship with Shemseddin Tabrisi, a dervish of the calendar order he met 1244 in Konya, brought him on the mystic way.
The Sufi Derwishorder of the Maulevis, which was founded after Maulanas death, got large influence during the time of the Turkish Seljuk and later in the Ottoman empire. The order was closed, when the new Turkish Republic was established at the beginning of the 20. century. Today exists in many countries, even in Europe and America small private groups, which are following the thoughts of Maulana and partly continuing mystic practices.
The ritual of “Sema”, the mystic dance of turning Maulevi dervishs found its origin in an inspiration of Maulana Celaleddin Rumi, but received its form after his death. Accompanied by the sounds of the flute “Ney” and other instruments, the whirling dervish is turning like in trance around his own axis, the right hand upward to be ready to receice GodÂ´s beneficence and the left hand downward to the earth. It symbols the mankind with their connection between heaven and earth.
The day of death Maulana Jalaluddin Rumis on December 17 in the year 1273 is named as “Seb-i-Arus”, what means literally translated “wedding night”. For the inhabitants of Konya at that time Mevlanas death was a drastic event. Sheikh Sadreddin Konevi, another mystic master from Konya, who should speak the last prayer for Maulana, fell in faint because of sadness. To Rumis funeral came numerous representatives of all groups and religions, also Christians and Jews. Despite of the muslim funeral they were reading from the old and new testament and described the character of Maulana as equal with Moses and Jesus. Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi had designated the death as typical for the sufis as “wedding”, a kind of still more intensive mental combination with God. In the Divan the following statement is contained: “When you see my funeral donÂ´t say: What for a separation. It is time for me to meet the loverâ€¦”
There is every year a festival week in Konya in December with exhibitans, concerts and performance of the whirling dervish dance “Sema” at the Maulana cultural center (Mevlana KÃ¼ltÃ¼r Merkezi).
In 2006 more than 70000 visitors from many different countries came to see the performances. Like every year December 17 was a special day, where hundreds of people came together in the afternoon at the tomb of Maulana to speak “Dua”.
In the Maulana year 2007, which was declared by UNESCO after an initiative of the countries Turkey, Egypt and Afghanistan, will be world-wide cultural and informative events about Maulans philosophy.
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi will be for every time a good example, because of his tolerance, love and good relation to his fellows.
مولانا جلال الدین محمد بلخی رومی
پیدائش اور نام و نسب
محمد جلال الدین رومی (پیدائش:1207ء، انتقال: 1273ء) مشہور فارسی شاعر تھے۔ اصل نام جلال الدین تھا لیکن مولانا رومی کے نام سے مشہور ہوئے۔ جواہر مضئیہ میں سلسلہ نسب اس طرح بیان کیا ہے : محمد بن محمد بن محمد بن حسین بن احمد بن قاسم بن مسیب بن عبداللہ بن عبدالرحمن بن ابی بکرن الصدیق۔ اس روایت سے حسین بلخی مولانا کے پردادا ہوتے ہیں لیکن سپہ سالار نے انہیں دادا لکھا ہے اور یہی روایت صحیح ہے۔ کیونکہ وہ سلجوقی سلطان کے کہنے پر اناطولیہ چلے گئے تھے جو اس زمانے میں روم کہلاتا تھا۔ ان کے والد بہاؤ الدین بڑے صاحب علم و فضل بزرگ تھے۔ ان کا وطن بلخ تھا اور یہیں مولانا رومی 1207ء بمطابق 604ھ میں پیدا ہوئے۔
ابتدائی تعلیم کے مراحل شیخ بہاؤ الدین نے طے کرادیے اور پھر اپنے مرید سید برہان الدین کو جو اپنے زمانے کے فاضل علماء میں شمار کیے جاتے تھے مولاناکا معلم اور اتالیق بنادیا۔ اکثر علوم مولانا کو انہی سے حاصل ہوئے۔ اپنے والد کی حیات تک ان ہی کی خدمت میں رہے۔ والد کے انتقال کے بعد 639ھ میں شام کا قصد کیا ۔ ابتدا میں حلب کے مدرسہ حلاویہ میں رہ کر مولاناکمال الدین سے شرف تلمذ حاصل کیا۔
علم و فضل
مولانا رومی اپنے دور کے اکابر علماء میں سے تھے۔ فقہ اور مذاہب کے بہت بڑے عالم تھے۔ لیکن آپ کی شہرت بطور ایک صوفی شاعر کے ہوئی۔ دیگرعلوم میں بھی آپ کو پوری دستگاہ حاصل تھی۔ دوران طالب علمی میں ہی پیچیدہ مسائل میں علمائے وقت مولانا کی طرف رجوع کرتے تھے۔ شمس تبریز مولانا کے پیر و مرشد تھے۔ مولانا کی شہرت سن کر سلجوقی سلطان نے انھیں اپنے پاس بلوایا۔ مولانا نے درخواست قبول کی اور قونیہ چلے گئے اور
مولانا کے دو فرزند تھے ، علاؤ الدین محمد ، سلطان ولد ۔ علاؤ الدین محمد کا نام صرف اس کارنامے سے زندہ ہے کہ انہوں نے شمس تبریز کو شہید کیا تھا۔ سلطان ولد جو فرزند اکبر تھے ، خلف الرشید تھے ، گو مولانا کی شہرت کے آگے ان کا نام روشن نہ ہوسکا لیکن علوم ظاہری و باطنی میں وہ یگانہ روزگار تھے۔ ان کی تصنیفات میں سے خاص قابل ذکر ایک مثنوی ہے ، جس میں مولانا کے حالات اور واردات لکھے ہیں اور اس لحاظ سے وہ گویا مولانا کی مختصر سوانح عمری ہے۔
مولانا کا سلسلہ اب تک قائم ہے۔ ابن بطوطہ نے اپنے سفرنامے میں لکھا ہے کہ ان کے فرقے کے لوگ جلالیہ کہلاتے ہیں۔ چونکہ مولانا کا لقب جلال الدین تھا اس لیے ان کے انتساب کی وجہ سے یہ نام مشہور ہوا ہوگا ۔ لیکن آج کل ایشیائے کوچک ، شام ، مصر اور قسطنطنیہ میں اس فرقے کو لوگ مولویہ کہتے ہیں۔ یہ لوگ نمد کی ٹوپی پہنتے ہیں جس میں جوڑ یا درز نہیں ہوتی ، مشائخ اس ٹوپی پر عمامہ باندھتے ہیں۔ خرقہ یا کرتہ کی بجائے ایک چنٹ دار پاجامہ ہوتاہے۔ ذکر و شغل کا یہ طریقہ ہے کہ حلقہ باندھ کر بیٹھتے ہیں۔ ایک شخص کھڑا ہو کر ایک ہاتھ سینے پر اور ایک ہاتھ پھیلائے ہوئے رقص شروع کرتا ہے۔ رقص میں آگے پیچھے بڑھنا یا ہٹنا نہیں ہوتا بلکہ ایک جگہ جم کر متصل چکر لگاتے ہیں۔ سماع کے وقت دف اور نے بھی بجاتے ہیں۔
بقیہ زندگی وہیں گذار کر 1273ء بمطابق 672ھ میں انتقال کرگئے۔ قونیہ میں ان کا مزار آج بھی عقیدت مندوں کا مرکز ہے۔
قونیہ میں مولانا کا مزار
ان کی سب سے مشہور تصنیف ’’مثنوی مولانا روم‘‘ ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ ان کی ایک مشہور کتاب ’’فیہ مافیہ‘‘ بھی ہے۔
باقی ایں گفتہ آیدبے زباں
درددل ہر کس کہ دارد نورجان
ترجمہ:”جس شخص کی جان میں نورہوگا اس مثنوی کا بقیہ حصہ اس کے دل میں خودبخود اتر جائیگا”
اقبال اور رومی
علامہ محمد اقبال مولانا رومی کو اپنا روحانی پیر مانتے تھے۔ کشف اور وجدان کے ذریعے ادراک حقیقت کے بعد صوفی صحیح معنوں میں عاشق ہو جاتا ہے کہ بہ رغبت تمام محبوب حقیقی کے تمام احکام کی پیروی کرتا ہے۔ رومی نے جوہر عشق کی تعریف اور اس کی ماہیت کی طرف معنی خیز اشارے کیے ہیں ۔ صوفی کی ذہنی تکمیل کا مقام کیا ہے اس کے متعلق دو شعر نہایت دل نشیں ہیں۔
آدمی دید است باقی پوست است
دید آں باشد کہ دید دوست است
جملہ تن را در گداز اندر بصر
در نظر رو در نظر رو در نظر
علامہ اقبال نے اس کی یوں تشریح کی ہے
خرد کے پاس خبر کے سوا کچھ اور نہیں
ترا علاج نظر کے سوا کچھ اور نہیں
ان کے 800 ویں جشن پیدائش پر ترکی کی درخواست پر اقوام متحدہ کے ادارہ برائے تعلیم، ثقافت و سائنس یونیسکو نے 2007ء کو بین الاقوامی سالِ رومی قرار دیا۔ اس موقع پر یونیسکو تمغہ بھی جاری کرے گا۔
یہ معلومات وکیپیڈیا سے لی گئی ہے