Mir Taqi Mir -میر تقی میر
His name was Muhammad Taqi and takhallus (pen name) was “Mir” (sometimes also spelt as Meer Taqi Meer), was the leading Urdu poet of the eighteenth century, and one of the pioneers who gave shape to the Urdu language itself. He was one of the principal poets of the Delhi School of the Urdu ghazal and remains arguably the foremost name in Urdu poetry often remembered as Khuda-e-Sukhan (God of poetry).
Some of his impeccable couplets are:
“ Dikhaai diye yun ke bekhud kiya
Hamen aap se bhi juda kar chale”
(She appeared in such a way that i lost myself
And went by taking away my ‘self’ with her)”
“ Gor kis diljale ki hai ye falak
Shola ek subh yaan se uthta hai”
(What heart-sick sufferer’s misery is the sky?
an Ember rises hence at dawn)”
“ Ashk aankh mein kab nahi aata
Lahu aata hai jab nahi aata”
(From my eye, when doesn’t a tear fall
Blood falls when it doesn’t fall)”
“ Bekhudi le gai kahaan humko
Der se intezaar hai apna
(Where has selflessness taken me
I’ve been waiting for myself for long)”
“ Ibtidaa-e-ishq hai rotaa hai kyaa
Aage aage dekhiye hotaa hai kyaa
(Its the beginning of Love, why do you wail
Just wait and watch how things unveil)
“ Likhte ruqaa, likh gae daftar
Shauq ne baat kyaa badaai hai
(Started with a scroll, ended up with a record
How pursuit escalated the whole thing)”
“ Deedni hai shikasgi dil ki
Kya imaarat gamon ne dhaai hai
(Worth-watching is my heart’s siege
What a citadel have sorrows seized)”
“ Baad marne ke meri qabr pe aaya wo ‘Mir’
Yaad aai mere Isa ko dawa mere baad”
(O Mir, She came to my grave after i’d died
My messiah came to my aid after i’d died)”
He was born in Agra, India (called “Akbarabad” at the time), which at the time was ruled by the Mughals, in 1723, He left for Delhi, at the age of 11, following his father’s death. His philosophy of life was formed primarily from his father, whose emphasis on the importance of love and the value of compassion remained with him through his life and imbued his poetry. At Delhi, he finished his education and joined a group of nobility as a courtier-poet. He lived much of his life in Mughal Delhi. However, after Ahmad Shah Abdali’s sack of Delhi each year starting 1748, he eventually moved to the court of Asaf-ud-Daulah in Lucknow, at the king’s invitation. Distressed to witness the plundering of his beloved Delhi, he gave vent to his feelings through some of his couplets. He remained in Lucknow for the remainder of his life. He died in Lucknow, of a purgative overdose, on 20 September 1810.
Presented by:- Allama Dr.Syed Ali Imam Zaidi “Gauher” lucknavi
(Great Grand son of Mir Baber Ali Anees)
Mir Babbar Ali Anees میر ببر علی انیس
He was a renowned Urdu poet. He was born in Faizabad in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in 1803 and died in 1874.
His father, Mir Khaliq who was a famous poet and littérateur, took personal interest in the education and upbringing of his son, and entrusted him to the care of reputed contemporary teachers, Mir Najaf Ali Faizabadi and Maulvi Hyder Ali Lucknavi. In addition, Anis’s mother who was an educated and pious lady, played a significant role in shaping the personality of the boy poet. But above all, it was the boy’s own instinctive urge for learning and literature that made him an accomplished poet, proficient in Arabic, Persian and Islamic scriptures, and well-versed in logic, literature and philosophy. Poetry came to him as ancestral heritage, for his forbears, going back to his great grandfather, were eminent poets and men of letters. Anis was the grandson of Mir Hasan who is remembered for his immortal Masnavi, Sehir-ul-Bayaan. His parents had migrated in their old age to Lucknow, where he spent the best part of his life.
Anis had started writing poetry quite early in his life right at Faizabad, though he perfected his art in Lucknow under the supervision of Imam Bakhsh Nasikh. In keeping with the popular trend, he first tried his hand at the ghazal, but failing to make much headway in this sphere, he changed over, under the advice of his father, to the writing of marsias, in which domain he soon established a high reputation, equaled (sometimes) by his poetic compare, Salamat Ali Dabir. Anees broadened the scope of this genre by including in its body, in addition to the customary lamentation and mourning, realistic scenes of the battlefield, graphic delineations of the hero’s face and figure, lively portrayals of the emotional states of the combatants, accurate descriptions of the landscape, and occasional interludes of moral edification. Anis was a master of simple, natural utterance, with a superb command on the language, which was always adequate to express a large variety of moods, scenes, characters and situations. He is specially notable for presenting the same scene or situation, over and over again, in different words or phrases, without letting it appear monotonous. Besides being a master of the marsia, Anis was also a specialist of the rubai, the shortest complete poem in Urdu, containing only four lines.
Anis died in 1874 at the age of 71. The marsia, strictly speaking, is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Battle of Karbala. In its form the marsia generally consists of six-line units, with a rhyming quatrain, and a couplet on a different rhyme. This form found a specially congenial soil in Lucknow (a city in Northern India), chiefly because it was the centre of Shia Muslim community, which regarded it an act of piety and religious duty to eulogies and bemoan the martyrs of the battle of Karbala, and Even a short poem written to mourn the death of a friend can be called marsia. Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s poem ‘In Memoriam’ can rightly be called marsia. The sub-parts of marsia are called noha and soz which means lamentation and burning of (heart) respectively. It is usually a poem of mourning. The form reached its peak in the writing of Mir Babbar Ali Anis.
The famous marsia writers who inherited the tradition of Mir Anis among his successive generations are Mir Nawab Ali ‘Munis’, Dulaha Sahab ‘Uruj’, Mustafa Meerza urf Piyare Sahab ‘Rasheed’, Syed Muhammad Mirza Uns, Ali Nawab ‘Qadeem’, Syed Sajjad Hussain ‘Shadeed’, Syed Sajjad Hussain “Shadeed” Lucknavi, Dr. Syed Ali Imam Zaidi, “Gauher” Luckhnavi the (great grandson of Mir Babber Ali Anis).
The Majlis of 25 Rajab, is historically important Majlis of Marsiya in Lucknow, in this majlis Mir Anis used to recite Marsiya. After Mir Anis well known marsiya writers of Mir Anis’s family as Dulaha Sahab ‘Uruj’, Mustafa Meerza urf Piyare Sahab ‘Rasheed’, Ali Nawab (Qadeem) and Syed Sajjad Hussain ‘Shadeed’, inherited the legacy of reciting marsiya. Presently, Dr. Syed Ali Imam Zaidi (Gauher) Luckhnavi (grandson of ‘Shadeed’) recites self composed Marsiya.
Work, contribution and legacy
Mir Anis composed salāms, elegies, nauhas, quatrains. While the length of elegy initially had no more than forty or fifty stanzas, it now was beyond one hundred fifty or even longer than two hundred stanzas or bunds, as each unit of marsia in musaddas format is known. According to Muhammad Hussain Azad “The late Mīr Sahib must certainly have composed at least ten thousand elegies, and salāms beyond count. He composed as easily and casually as he spoke.”
Muharram and Mir Anis have become synonymous among Urdu lovers of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Mir Anis has been a great teacher and inspiration for generations. Undoubtedly, Urdu derives much of its strength from the Marsias of Mir Anis. Mir Anis has drawn upon the vocabulary of Arabic, Persian, Urdu/Hindi/Awadhi in such a good measure that he symbolizes the full spectrum of the cultural mosaic that Urdu has come to be. No Urdu poet from Ghalib onwards has lagged behind in showering his eulogies on Mir Anis. Mir Anis himself was aware of his contribution as he writes: “Kisi ne teri terha se aay Anis, Aroos-e-sukhan ko sanwara nahi”
“Perhaps there is no other poet in the world who has looked after the aesthetic and spiritual satisfaction of his fans so completely as Mir Anis does. It is simply miraculous!
The first major and still current critical articulation about Mir Anis was Muazna-e-Anis-o-Dabir (1907) written by Shibli Nomani in which he said “the poetic qualities and merits of Anis are not matched by any other poet”
Shamsur Rahman Faruqi in ‘How to read Iqbal?’ on comparing Iqbal with Nazeer Akbarabadi says that “Iqbal was placed better because he had, among others, Bedil (1644–1720) in Persian and Mir Anis (1802–1874) in Urdu.” to inherit the rich tradition of Urdu nazm. He further asserts that, “The mention of Mir Anis may surprise some of us until we realize it that Mir Anis’s marsiyas are the best premodern model in Urdu of narrative-historical, narrative-lyrical, and oral-dramatic poetry, and Iqbal’s poetry extends and exploits the possibilities created by Anis.”
Mirza Salaamat Ali Dabeer: 1803-1875
مرزا سلامت علی دبیر was a leading Urdu poet who excelled and perfected the art of Marsiya writing. He is considered the leading exponent of Marsiya Nigari or marsiya writing along with Mir Anis.
Mirza Dabeer was born in 1803 in Delhi. He started reciting marsiya since childhood during muharram ceremonial gatherings called majalis (singular-majlis). He started writing poetry under the tutelage of Mir Muzaffar Husain Zameer. Dabeer himself was an erudite scholar of his time. He migrated from Delhi to Lucknow, where he found suitable environment to develop and demonstrarte his skills in marsiya writing. According to Maulana Muhammad Husain Azad in Aab-e-Hayat quoting Tazkira-e-Sarapa Sukhan, there is confusion regarding his father’s name because of two different names mentioned in Tazkira as- Ghulam Husain /Mirza Agha Jan Kaghazfarosh. Mirza Dabeer died in Lucknow in 1875 and is buried there.